Retinal Diseases

We specialize in diagnosis and treatment of all Retinal Diseases which includes,

India has an enormous burden of type 2 diabetic population of nearly 50 million and it  continues  to rise . Abnormal blood sugar damages the blood vessels of retina which can cause impaired vision and blindness.

Diabetic vision loss occurs due to

  • Macular Edema – Swelling in the center of Retina
  • Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy – Growth of abnormal blood vessels that can rupture and bleed.
  • Ischemia – Loss of blood supply to central retina

Stages and Types of  diabetic retinopathy :

  • Non-Proliferative occurs in early stages of Diabetes when visual loss is mild to moderate
  • Proliferative stage – serious vision loss can occur in this stage which requires surgical intervention 


Early stages may be without any symptoms. Hence it is important that diabetic patients regularly check their eyes with Retinal Examinations. 

Common Symptoms:

  • Distorted Vision
  • Decreased Contrast
  • Decrease in Sharpness

Tests for Diagnosing diabetic retinopathy are:

Fundus fluorescein angiography . Optical coherence tomography, ultrasound B Scans


Treatment and Management of Diabetic Retinopathy:

  • It starts with controlling glycemic status of patients.
  • Special injections – Antivegf are given intravitreally which reduces the bleeding and swelling within the eye.
  • Retinal laser help to prevent recurrence of swelling within the retina
  • Surgical Treatment – Vitrectomy

This is a specialized surgery to remove the blood within the eye and to settle the retina that is being pulled away from the back of eye . This is performed in complicated situation.

Patient participation in their eye care is important. Patient education and also involving the primary care physician for diabetes control is method adopted at our Institute to get the best results.

Occlusion occurs when vein drawing blood from retina becomes blocked. This leads to bleeding & swelling within Retina in vein occlusion. High blood pressure, uncontrolled diabetes and blood disorders can cause this condition. Diagnostic tests like FFA, OCT are done and intravitreal injection combined with laser help in early resolution.

Separation of retina from its underlying layers that supply nourishment is Retinal Detachment. When a hole or tear allows fluid to pass behind the retina, it pulls off from the back surface of eye.

Some people at greater risk of detachment than the rest are patients with myopia, Lattice degeneration, Ocular Trauma or eye surgery.

Surgery is the only treatment that can reattach the retina. Special surgeries done are,

  • Scleral Buckle
  • Vitrectomy
  • Pneumatic Retinopexy

ARMD is a common cause of vision loss in elderly. This disease is often Bilateral.


  • Patient may notice gradual worsening of their central vision
  • Visual distortions or bending in one or both eyes is seen

Types of ARMD:

There are 2 types

  • Wet ARMD
  • Dry ARMD 

Tests helpful in Diagnosis are:


Treatment and progress:

  • Dry form – benefit from oral medications
  • Wet form – benefit from intravitreal anti vegf therapy

Patients with ARMD require regular monitoring of their central vision with Amsters chart.

This occurs when fluid accumulates in macula that can impair vision.

Different causes include:

  • Eye Surgery
  • Diabetic Retinopathy
  • Retinal Vessel Occlusion
  • Uvetis

Diagnosis & Treatment:

FFA, OCT & ICG are helpful in diagnosis.

  • Intravitreal of Anti-vegf or IVTA injections
  • Vitrectomy is required in some patients

Occurs when blood collects within the vitreous. This is a jelly that fills the eye between lens to retina. Bleeding originates from the blood vessel of the retina which ruptures due to high blood pressure, uncontrolled diabetes or bleeding disorders. There is sudden severe decrease of vision. Diagnostic tests like Ultrasound B.Scan give detailed information. Treatment in the form of vitrectomy helps to remove the blood, release the traction and restore vision.

Occurs due to collection of fluid below center of retina called Macula.

Symptoms include:

  • Blurring of Vision
  • Metamorphosia

Diagnostic Tests performed:

  • Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)
  • Fundus Fluorescein Angiography (FFA)
  • Indocyanine Green Test (ICG)

Treatment for CSR:

  • Observation
  • Retinal Laser
  • Stress Reduction

Night-Blindness and many inherited retinal diseases manifest first in childhood. Retinal screening will help in identifying these diseases. Low vision aids and correction of refractive errors helps the patients in managing their day to day activities. Special investigation helps in diagnosing disease and monitoring the rate of progression.

Retina is divided in central (called macula) & peripheral retina.

Myopia causes progressive thinning of Retina. Areas of thinned retina can develop holes in Retinal periphery and increase the rise of developing retinal detachment. Progressive thinning involving the central (macula) of retina can cause significant decrease of vision or development of a bleeding membrane.

Patients with myopia require yearly retinal evaluation for early diagnosis and treatment of complications.

Trauma to the face and eye can be very serious and visually debilitating. People sustain ocular trauma at work, road, traffic accidents, sports related, assault, fireworks, and due to chemical injuries. Emergency care is provided by experts. Complicated Vitreo-Retinal surgeries are performed with intraocular foreign body removal to restore vision.

You may see flies or specks in your field of vision. This happens when vitreous degenerates or detaches. Flashes occur when Retina is pulled and it is irritated or disturbed.

Causes of Flashes & Floaters:

  1. Bleeding within eye
  2. Retinal Tear
  3. Posterior vitreous detachment
  4. Inflammation within the eye

Detailed evaluation of retina by retinal specialist helps to evaluate the Retina and treat the underlying cause.

Tumors arise within the eye. They may be benign or malignant. Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary eye cancer in adults and Retinoblastoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor in children. Eyelid tumors are Basal cell carcinoma and Squamous cell carcinoma.

Detailed evaluation include examination under anesthesia for children combined with Ultrasound  B Scan . Ocular treatment like laser therapy, cryotherapy is done in collaboration with oncologist to preserve vision and save life.

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